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The Environment Agency’s Chief Scientist’s Group has recently published nine environmental risk evaluation reports on the environmental hazards and risks from certain per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) being made or used in the UK. This work contributes to the UK Government’s action plan to address concerns arising from PFAS by providing an informal assessment of the available data to gain a better understanding of the hazards, exposure and risks these substances may pose to the UK environment.

The reports focus on the following eight PFAS:

  1. Octafluoropropane - also known as perfluoropropane or PFP (CAS no. 76-19-7) Environmental risk evaluation report: Perfluoropropane [PFP] (
  2. Hexafluoropropene or HFP (CAS no. 116-15-4) Environmental risk evaluation report: Hexafluoropropene [HFP] (
  3. Perflunafene - also known as perfluorodecalin or PFD (CAS no. 306-94-5) Environmental risk evaluation report: Perflunafene [PFD] (
  4. 1,1,1,2,2,3,3,4,5,5,5-Undecafluoro-4-(trifluoromethyl)pentane - also known as perfluoroisohexane or PFiHx (CAS no. 355-04-4) Environmental risk evaluation report: Perfluoroisohexane [PFiHx] (
  5. Trideca-1,1,1,2,2,3,3,4,4,5,5,6,6-fluorohexane - also known as 1H-perfluorohexane or 1H-PFHx (CAS no. 355-37-3) Environmental risk evaluation report: Trideca-1,1,1,2,2,3,3,4,4,5,5,6,6-fluorohexane [1H-PFHx] (CAS no. 355-37-3) (
  6. 31,1,1,2,2,3,3-Heptafluoro-3-[(trifluorovinyl)oxy]propane - also known as perfluoro(propyl vinyl ether) or PPVE (CAS no. 1623-05-8) Environmental risk evaluation report: 1,1,1,2,2,3,3-Heptafluy]propane [PPVE]oro-3-[(trifluorovinyl)ox (
  7. 3,3,4,4,5,5,6,6,6-Nonafluorohexene - also known as perfluorobutylethylene or PFBE (CAS no. 19430-93-4) Environmental risk evaluation report: 3,3,4,4,5,5,6,6,6-Nonafluorohexene [Perfluorobutylethylene; PFBE] (
  8. Ammonium difluoro[1,1,2,2-tetrafluoro-2-(pentafluoroethoxy)ethoxy]acetate - also known as perfluoros[(2-ethoxy-2-fluoroethoxy)acetic acid], ammonium salt or EEA-NH4 (CAS no. 908020-52-0) Environmental risk evaluation report: Perfluoro(2-ethoxy-2-fluoroethoxy)-acetic acid, ammonium salt [EEA-NH4] (CAS no. 908020-52-0) (

These PFAS are all manufactured or imported into the UK in quantities above 1 tonne per year and were selected to represent different types and uses of PFAS. An additional report covers a PFAS that seems to be of low commercial importance but has nevertheless been detected at very low concentrations in UK surface water monitoring:

  1. 6:2 Chlorinated polyfluorinated ether sulfonate, 6:2 Cl-PFESA - known as F-53B (CAS no. 73606-19-6) Environmental risk evaluation report: Potassium 9-chlorohexadecafluoro-3-oxanonane-1-sulfonate [F-53B] (CAS no. 73606-19-6) (

F-53B was assessed because it is a possible substitute for perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), which is subject to stringent risk management measures.

Each report considers the reliability and relevance of the available substance identity, physico-chemical, environmental fate and toxicity information to determine relevant risks.  Likely environmental pathways and numerical exposure limits are established where possible.

These reports are not formal evaluations under UK REACH legislation, though they make use of publicly available registration data provided under REACH and additional information sources.

A brief summary of the work is available here Environmental risk evaluation reports: Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) - summary - GOV.UK (